The GPON technology network constantly growing in the world, end-users demanding faster internet speed. Fiber optics technology is the absolute way to go.
Fiber to the Home (FTTH) GPON networks continue to be in high demand because of this. Optical fiber cables are the only thing that can support the demand for higher speeds as well as the distance within networks.
Optical Fiber cables have another advantage over metal cables, such as copper, in that they are less susceptible to interference. Spark hazards are always a possibility when using a metal cable to transmit signals. Small sparks can occur when sending electric potentials down a metal medium, these small sparks have the potential to cause shortages. By using GPON Optical fiber cables, this will eliminate that hazard due to no current being transmitted.
With a single optical fibre being able to support multiple users due to the use of passive optical splitters. Passive optical splitters make GPON technology advantage by reducing equipment, satisfying high-density areas as well as supporting triple-play services (voice, data, and IP video) at the demanding rate of the public. With Ethernet connections only pointing to point, GPONs technology clear advantage is it being a point to multi-point as well as offering higher downstream speeds then EPON, GEPON technology (Ethernet Passive Optical Network/ Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network). Mandatory components of GPON is OLT, Optical fibre, ONU, Splitters & ODF.
Features of GPON Networks:
- GPON Technology provides downstream speeds of 2.5 Gbps
- GPON Technology upstream speeds of 1.25 Gbps.
- GPON Support long distances of up to 20 km and unlike copper does not suffer from decreasing performance over distance.
- Standards-based and equipment are available from a large and growing number of vendors giving service providers peace of mind with being locked into a single vendor.
- Inherently secure wherein wiretapping, eavesdropping and other hacking is nearly impossible.
GPON technology network is capable of transmitting multiplexing divided by time, Ethernet, and ATP traffic. These type of networks consists of an OLT (Optical Line Terminals) unit, an ONU (Optical Network Unit) and a splitter. The splitter will redirect the signal when necessary. The OLT unit takes all the optical signals in the form of light beams from the ONUs and converts them into electrical signals. OLTs typically support a maximum of 72 ports.
The ONU connects end users and forwards the signal back to the OLTs. A GPON Network supports a physical distance of up to 20 kilometers and can provide service to 64 end users. GPON uses upstream and downstream data using Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing.
1. WHAT IS GPON?
- GPON technology is an attractive FTTH broadband access network technology because it meets the needs of carriers worldwide.
- GPON technology has successfully demonstrated this approach and is being deployed in high volume in Asia.
- GPON technology includes all of the ingredients for market success such as a consumer base that is eager to adopt a much faster and more comprehensive set of high-speed services.
- A set of features ready to offer those services and infrastructure of system vendors that are capable of deploying GPON technology.
- Upstream uses 1310 nm. (Nanometer)
- Downstream uses 1490 nm. (Nanometer)
- RF video overlay uses 1550 nm. (Nanometer)
These are the COMPONENTS OF GPON Technology
- ODN – Optical Distribution Network– an ODN realizes the optical transmission from the OLT towards the users and vice versa. It utilizes passive optical components including optical splitters.
- OLT – Optical Line Termination.
- ONT – Optical Network Termination.
- OFC – Optical Fiber Cable.
- These devices split incoming light and distribute the light among multiple fibers, or in the reverse direction combine multiple light streams onto a single fiber.
- Optical splitters are classified as passive because there are no active electrical components.
- This means that the device is not sensitive to temperature or other elements that would be problematic for electrical componentry.
- The optical splitter can be seen as an optical junction box. One side of the box is the fiber that connects to the Telco exchange (OLT), and on the other side are up to 64 fibers, each of which connects to a customer premise.
5.OPTICAL LINE TERMINAL
- An OLT is the service provider endpoint of a PON and can be located in a number of places, but would tend to reside in Telco exchanges, CO or head-ends.
- The PON architecture, therefore, allows a single fiber starting at the OLT
- (Telco exchange) to be passively split (shared) by up to 64 customers.
- The OLT is connected to the ONU or ONT via a Passive Optical Network (PON) that is made up of fiber cables, splitters, and other passive components.
- The ONUs would tend to be located in weather reinforced street/pole cabinets, and ONTs would be located at customer premises.
- Optical Network Termination units provide the optic-electrical conversion, allowing information to transit from an optical fiber framework to an electrical metallic framework.
- ONTs can be thought of as the demarcation point where the carrier network ends and the customer network begins. From a physical perspective, the carrier fiber connects to one end of the device, and a customer cable on the other end.
- ONUs terminates the optical stream and converts the signal into an electrical format for transmission to the customer premise.
- ONT may present one or more converged interfaces, Such as xDSL or Ethernet, toward the user.
- An ONU typically requires a separate subscriber Unit to provide native user services such as telephony, Ethernet data, or video.
7.Optical fiber Cable
An optical fiber cable is a type of cable that has a number of optical fibers bundled together, which are normally covered in their individual protective plastic covers. Optical cables are used to transfer digital data signals in the form of light up to distances of hundreds of miles with higher throughput rates than those achievable via electrical communication cables.
All-optical fibres use a core of hair-like transparent silicon covered with less refractive indexed cladding to avoid light leakage to the surroundings. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the optical fibre, it is normally covered with a high-strength, lightweight protective material like Kevlar.
Two common types of fiber optics are:
- Single-mode fiber (SMF)
- Multi-mode fiber (MMF) Click here